Contemporary French Feminism (Oxford Readings in Feminism)
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Have we entered a historical moment of "post-feminism? Versions of Difference, Sylviane Agacinski 4. The Meaning of Equality, Julia Kristeva 7. Genealogy of Masculinity, Monique Schneider 9. The Prescribed Sex, Sabine Prokhoris Kelly Oliver is W. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Academic Skip to main content. Search Start Search. Choose your country or region Close. To purchase, visit your preferred ebook provider. Postcolonial feminists object to portrayals of women of non-Western societies as passive and voiceless victims, as opposed to the portrayal of Western women as modern, educated and empowered.
Postcolonial feminism is critical of Western forms of feminism, notably radical feminism and liberal feminism and their universalization of female experience. Postcolonial feminists argue that, in cultures impacted by colonialism , the glorification of a pre-colonial culture, in which power was stratified along lines of gender, could include the acceptance of, or refusal to deal with, inherent issues of gender inequality. Third-world feminism has been described as a group of feminist theories developed by feminists who acquired their views and took part in feminist politics in so-called third world countries .
Although women from the third world have been engaged in the feminist movement, Chandra Talpade Mohanty criticizes Western feminism on the grounds that it is ethnocentric and does not take into account the unique experiences of women from third world countries or the existence of feminisms indigenous to third world countries. According to her, women in the third world feel that Western feminism bases its understanding of women on its "internal racism , classism and homophobia" .
This discourse is strongly related to African feminism and postcolonial feminism. Its development is also associated with concepts such as black feminism, womanism    , "Africana womanism"  , "motherism"  , "Stiwanism"  , "negofeminism"  , chicana feminism and "femalism. Ecofeminism links ecology with feminism. Ecofeminists see the domination of women as stemming from the same ideologies that bring about the domination of the environment.
Patriarchal systems, where men own and control the land, are seen as responsible for both the oppression of women and destruction of the natural environment. Since the men in power control the land, they are able to exploit it for their own profit and success, in the same sense that women are exploited by men in power for their own profit, success, and pleasure. As a way of repairing social and ecological injustices, ecofeminists feel that women must work towards creating a healthy environment and ending the destruction of the lands that most women rely on to provide for their families.
Ecofeminism argues that there is a connection between women and nature that comes from their shared history of oppression by a patriarchal western society. Vandana Shiva explains how women's special connection to the environment through their daily interactions with it have been ignored.
Feminist and social ecologist Janet Biehl has criticized ecofeminism for focusing too much on a mystical connection between women and nature, and not enough on the actual conditions of women. The term 'post-feminism' comprises a wide range of theories, some of which argue that feminism is no longer relevant to today's society.
This article was based on a number of interviews with women who largely agreed with the goals of feminism, but did not identify themselves as feminists.
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Sarah Gamble argues that feminists such as Naomi Wolf, Katie Roiphe, Natasha Walter and Rene Denefeld are labeled as 'anti-feminists,' whereas they define themselves as feminists who have shifted from second-wave ideas towards an "individualistic liberal agenda". One of the difficulties in defining and circumscribing a complex and heterogeneous concept such as feminism  is the extent to which women have rejected the term from a variety of semantic and political standpoints. Many women engaged in activities intimately grounded in feminism have not considered themselves feminists.
It is assumed that only women can be feminists.
However, feminism is not grounded in a person's gender, but in their commitment to rejecting and refuting sexist oppression politically, socially, privately, linguistically, and otherwise. Defining feminism in this way reflects the contemporary reality that both men and women openly support feminism, and also openly adhere to sexist ideals. Ann Taylor,  offers the following definition of a feminist, after Karen Offen: .
Any person who recognizes " the validity of women's own interpretation of their lived experiences and needs," protests against the institutionalized injustice perpetrated by men as a group against women as a group, and advocates the elimination of that injustice by challenging the various structures of authority or power that legitimate male prerogatives in a given society.
Another way of expressing this concept is that a primary goal of feminism is to correct androcentric bias. Other attempts at defining feminism have been made by the United Nations.
Download Contemporary French Feminism Oxford Readings In Feminism
Charlotte Witt observes that this reflects the " contested nature of the "us" of contemporary feminism … and is a part of, on-going debates within feminism over its identity and self-image … in the final analysis, the result of debate within feminist philosophy over what feminism is, and what its theoretical commitments should be, and what its core values are. The feminist movement has effected a number of changes in Western society, including women's suffrage; the right to initiate divorce proceedings and "no fault" divorce; access to university education; and the right of women to make individual decisions regarding pregnancy including access to contraceptives and abortion.
According to studies by the United Nations , when both paid employment and unpaid household tasks are accounted for, on average women work more than men. In rural areas of selected developing countries, women performed an average of 20 percent more work than men, or an additional minutes per day. In the OECD countries surveyed, on average women performed 5 percent more work than men, or 20 minutes per day. At the UN's Pan Pacific Southeast Asia Women's Association Twenty First International Conference in it was stated that "in the world as a whole, women comprise 51 percent of the population, do 66 percent of the work, receive 10 percent of the income and own less than one percent of the property.
Gender-neutral language is the usage of terminology which is aimed at minimizing assumptions regarding the biological sex of human referents.
Feminism and Generational Conflict in Recent German Literature and Film
Gender-neutral language is advocated both by those who aim to clarify the inclusion of both sexes or genders gender-inclusive language ; and by those who propose that gender, as a category, is rarely worth marking in language gender-neutral language. Gender-neutral language is sometimes described as non-sexist language by advocates, and politically-correct language by opponents. The increased entry of women into the workplace which began during the Industrial Revolution and increased rapidly during the twentieth and century has affected gender roles and the division of labor within households.
The sociologist , Arlie Russell Hochschild, presents evidence in her books, The Second Shift and The Time Bind, that in two-career couples, men and women on the average spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework. Feminist criticisms of men's contributions to child care and domestic labor in the Western middle class are typically centered around the idea that it is unfair for women to be expected to perform more than half of a household's domestic work and child care when both members of the relationship also work outside the home.
Feminist theology is a movement that reconsiders the traditions, practices, scriptures , and theologies of their religion from a feminist perspective.
Some of the goals of feminist theology include increasing the role of women among the clergy and religious authorities, reinterpreting male-dominated imagery and language about God , determining women's place in relation to career and motherhood, and studying images of women in the religion's sacred texts. Christian feminism is a branch of feminist theology which seeks to interpret and understand Christianity in terms of the equality of women and men morally, socially, and in leadership.
Because this equality has been historically ignored, Christian feminists believe their contributions are necessary for a complete understanding of Christianity. While there is no standard set of beliefs among Christian feminists, most agree that God does not discriminate on the basis of biologically-determined characteristics such as gender. Their major issues are the ordination of women, male dominance in Christian marriage , and claims of moral deficiency and inferiority of the abilities of women compared to men.
They also are concerned with issues such as the balance of parenting between mothers and fathers and the overall treatment of women in the church. Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. Feminist movements, with varying approaches and successes, have opened up within all major branches of Judaism. In its modern form, the movement can be traced to the early s in the United States.
According to Judith Plaskow, who has focused on feminism in Reform Judaism , the main issues for early Jewish feminists in these movements were the exclusion from the all-male prayer group or minyan, the exemption from positive time-bound mitzvot coming of age ceremony , and women's inability to function as witnesses and to initiate divorce.
Feminist Philosophy (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Islamic feminism is concerned with the role of women in Islam. It aims for the full equality of all Muslims , regardless of gender, in public and private life. Islamic feminists advocate women's rights, gender equality, and social justice grounded in an Islamic framework. Although rooted in Islam , the movement's pioneers have also utilized secular and Western feminist discourses and recognize the role of Islamic feminism as part of an integrated global feminist movement . Advocates of the movement seek to highlight the deeply rooted teachings of equality in the Qur'an and encourage a questioning of the patriarchal interpretation of Islamic teaching through the Qur'an holy book , hadith sayings of Muhammed and sharia law towards the creation of a more equal and just society.
Some natural and social scientists have considered feminist ideas and feminist forms of scholarship using scientific methods. One core scientific controversy involves the issue of the social construction versus the biological formation of gender- or sex-associated identities. Modern feminist science examines the view that most, if not all, differences between the sexes are based on socially constructed gender identities rather than on biological sex differences.
Anne Fausto-Sterling's book Myths of Gender explores the assumptions, embodied in scientific research, that purport to support a biologically essentialist view of gender. Carol Tavris, in The Mismeasure of Woman the title is a play on Stephen Jay Gould 's The Mismeasure of Man , uses psychology, sociology, and analysis in a critique of theories that use biological reductionism to explain differences between men and women. She argues that such theories, rather being based on an objective analysis of the evidence of innate gender difference, have grown out of an over-arching hypothesis intended to justify inequality and perpetuate stereotypes.
Evelyn Fox Keller has argued that the rhetoric of science reflects a masculine perspective, and questions the idea of scientific objectivity. Primatologist Sarah Blaffer Hrdy notes the prevalence of masculine-coined stereotypes and theories, such as the non-sexual female, despite the accumulation of abundant openly available evidence contradicting it ".
Sarah Kember, drawing from numerous areas such as evolutionary biology, sociobiology, artificial intelligence , and cybernetics in development with a new evolutionism, discusses the biologization of technology. She notes how feminists and sociologists have become suspect of evolutionary psychology, particularly inasmuch as sociobiology is subjected to complexity in order to strengthen sexual difference as immutable through pre-existing cultural value judgments about human nature and natural selection.
Where feminist theory is criticized for its "false beliefs about human nature," Kember then argues in conclusion that "feminism is in the interesting position of needing to do more biology and evolutionary theory in order not to simply oppose their renewed hegemony, but in order to understand the conditions that make this possible, and to have a say in the construction of new ideas and artefacts. Pro-feminism is support of feminism without implying that the supporter is a member of the feminist movement.
The term is most often used in reference to men who are actively supportive of feminism and of efforts to bring about gender equality. The activities of pro-feminist men's groups include anti-violence work with boys and young men in schools, offering sexual harassment workshops in workplaces, running community education campaigns, and counseling male perpetrators of violence. Pro-feminist men also are involved in men's health, activism against pornography including anti-pornography legislation, men's studies, the development of gender equity curricula in schools, and many other areas.
This work is sometimes in collaboration with feminists and women's services, such as domestic violence and rape crisis centers. Some activists of both genders will not refer to men as "feminists" at all, and will refer to all pro-feminist men as "pro-feminists".
Opposition to feminism comes in many forms, either criticizing feminist ideology and practice, or arguing that it should be restrained. Antifeminism is often equated with male chauvinism. Young's books Spreading Misandry and Legalizing Misandry explore what they argue is feminist-inspired misandry hatred of men as a sex.
In Who Stole Feminism: How Women Have Betrayed Women, Christina Hoff-Sommers argues that feminist misandry leads directly to misogyny by what she calls "establishment feminists" against the majority of women who love men. New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards.
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