Lipstick: A Womans Best Form Of Defence
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It was rumored that she loved her red lip color so much that she believed they had magical powers and could ward off death and sickness. Pretty ironic considering one of the main ingredients was lead, which would slowly poison and disfigure the wearer until she or he eventually died of lead poisoning. It was once again considered deceitful to men and sinful, and England even had a law making it punishable as witchcraft.
The first and most famous public demonstration of red lipstick was performed by suffragettes as they poured into New York City streets in protest in This was quite revolutionary for its time and something women still fight for to this day. Compacts and Cosmetics.
While lipstick was still ascribed to unruly suffragettes, the stigma against a bright red pout began to fade away thanks to the influence of Hollywood and silent film stars like Clara Bow. Women soon wanted to emulate their favorite actresses. They became the model of what was attractive for women, so it was easy to use their likenesses to sell product. Classic Beauty: The History of Makeup. Fast forward to World War II. Adolf Hitler hated red lipstick and would not allow any woman around him to wear it because he claimed it contained animal fat from sewage.
So, of course, red lipstick became hugely popular and a symbol of patriotism in America. Women were actively encouraged to paint their lips bright red and glossy to keep up morale. Rosie the Riveter became a wartime icon for a generation of women with her lipsticked mouth, painted red nails and muscular arms. Elizabeth Arden created a makeup kit for the American Marine Corps Women's Reserve that included a red lipstick that matched elements of their uniforms. Face Paint. These days, red lipstick still makes a bold statement.
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If you go with a red lip, you probably won't feel a need to wear much else on your face. In fact, I like it best when paired with some big sunglasses, a cool hat and a casual outfit like jeans and a t-shirt.
Why we really use lipstick, mascara, and foundation.
Pro tip: When searching for the perfect shade of red for your skin tone, try it on with no other makeup on. Can you really train people to be more accepting of diversity after making them sit through a 2-hour seminar? Let's be realistic. It's too conceptual. Several important politicians helped shepherd the first safety regulation of cosmetics, with the powerful President Franklin D.
Roosevelt a vital force among them. Shortly after taking office, Roosevelt announced his support for strengthening of the Pure Food and Drug Act of , thereby signaling to agency and congressional actors that renewed efforts to correct the lack of cosmetics regulation could now succeed. Copeland, then pushed the discussion further.
Such a reversal of previous industry position resulted largely from the growing patchwork of state cosmetics regulations; rather than remain subject to a multitude of state regulations that varied widely in scope and stringency, the cosmetics industry preferred one set of uniform national rules. Indeed, state regulation of lipstick and other cosmetics sprouted in all directions during the s. Maine enacted perhaps the most protective law, which compelled manufacturers to register all cosmetics formulas with the State Department of Health.
No person, firm, corporation or copartnership shall hold for sale, sell, offer for sale, in intrastate commerce, give away, deal in, within this state, supply or apply in the conduct of a beauty shop, barber shop, hairdressing establishment or similar establishment, any cosmetic preparation unless the said preparation has been registered with and a certificate of registration secured from the department of health and welfare.
Registration required paying an initial inspection fee and annual renewal fee, and failure to register or distribution after registration rejection could result in product seizure and fines. None is well founded. Only a few need to be discussed. Other states also had strict, but piecemeal cosmetics regulations. For example, New Jersey prohibited use of methyl alcohol in cosmetics, Kentucky banned poisonous and dangerous eyebrow and eyelash dyes, and New Hampshire banned the aforesaid dyes as well as lead-based hair dyes. Three states, Louisiana, Virginia, and North Dakota, passed comprehensive cosmetics laws that borrowed heavily from differing portions of the pending federal legislation.
Instead of using the registration process to preemptively eliminate poisonous cosmetics, Louisiana used the registration process to ensure merely that cosmetics containing poisons indicated the fact on their labels.
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One writer of the era exclaimed:. Except in the trade papers, no piece of major legislation [referring to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act] has received less publicity and attention. During the five years the [Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act] was considered in Congress it was seldom mentioned in the general press, and it has received little attention during the two years that have elapsed since its passage.
Hence, with the importance of lipstick safety regulation established in the law but not yet embedded in the public conscious, lipstick encountered the s.
American lipstick production and consumption managed to flourish still further in the eye of World War II. Although the war did force the replacement of metal cases with first plastic cases and then, eventually, paper ones, lipstick generally became only more elaborate and advanced. In , Americans spent twenty million dollars on lipstick. While consumer focus remained intent upon lipstick, American regulatory focus generally turned elsewhere during the war and its aftermath.
Whereas America placed no restrictions on lipstick, England passed a Limitations of Supplies order that cut the manufacturing of lipstick and other cosmetics to the bare minimum in order to conserve materials for war purposes. With the lipstick industry having successfully re-imagined lipstick as a symbol of devout, conventional femininity, lipstick became a ubiquitous, and even indispensable, item during the s.
Once again, demand and development swelled concurrently. Some genuine product development occurred, with the most important but least acknowledged development concerning a fidgeting with lipstick formulas in order to improve comfort. Unlike in the original s skirmish over cosmetics regulations, the FTC actually participated in rather than resisted this s regulatory charge. First, representative James D. These objections managed to get the food additives bill reported out of committee, without the Delaney language, but Delaney quickly convinced the general assembly to reinsert the language.
Provided, That no additive shall be deemed to be safe if it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal, or if it is found, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animal, except that this proviso shall not apply with respect to the use of a substance as an ingredient of feed for animals which are raised for food production, if the Secretary finds i that, under the conditions of use and feeding specified in proposed labeling and reasonably certain to be followed in practice, such additive will not adversely affect the animals for which such feed is intended, and ii that no residue of the additive will be found by methods of examination prescribed or approved by the Secretary by regulations, which regulations shall not be subject to subsections f and g in any edible portion of such animal after slaughter or in any food yielded by or derived from the living animal.
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It bears note that the law did not take quite so extreme an approach as the above-quoted text suggests, for the law included a grandfather clause exempting any substances that had already received regulatory approval under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Federal Meat Inspection Act of Moreover, Congress also passed a second law that further restricted the use of specifically color additives in both food and cosmetics. A color additive shall, with respect to any particular use for which it is being used or intended to be used or is represented as suitable in or on food or drugs or devices or cosmetics, be deemed unsafe Put in plain English, this language prohibits cosmetics companies from using any color additive unless the FDA has listed that additive as approved for the given use, and that additive comes from a batch certified for use.
A color additive shall be unsafe, and shall not be listed, for any use which will or may result in ingestion of all or part of such additive, if the additive is found by the Secretary to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal, or if it is found by the Secretary, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of additives for use in food, to induce cancer in man or animal, and shall be deemed unsafe, and shall not be listed, for any use which will not result in ingestion of any part of such additive, if, after tests which are appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of additives for such use, or after other relevant exposure of man or animal to such additive, it is found by the Secretary to induce cancer in man or animal.
This language creates a situation in which colorants, like other additives, must not pose any risk of cancer. But also, unlike in the case of other additives, the FDA must prescreen all colorants for a risk of cancer and other harms before manufacturers can incorporate the colorants into any product. Tumult that swept up most established institutions and conventions left lipstick relatively untouched as an accepted emblem of femininity. The lates phenomena of white and beige lipsticks increased in popularity to become best sellers. This realization came none too soon, as the Food and Color Additive Amendments went into effect and forced lipstick manufacturers to take more care with ingredients than ever before.
Almost two hundred colors went into cosmetics during the s, but this number began rapidly declining during the s towards the current level of thirty-four permissible colors. Interpretation of the Color Additive Amendment provoked the greatest fights between the FDA and industry, particularly on three sub-issues. First, the FDA interpreted the Color Additive Amendment to allow for defining lipstick and other finished cosmetics as color additives, and so duly issued a regulation defining finished cosmetics as a color additive.
Finch , the cosmetics industry  succeeded in this challenge.
Implementation of the Food and Color Additives Amendments had similarly high stakes, for it involved the banning of many colors upon which the cosmetics industry had previously depended. Looking at lipstick from a social perspective, people spent the s busily rebelling both with and against lipstick, and product developments catered to each of these divergent rebellions in turn.
As it had so often before, lipstick became a symbol of social rebellion, adopted by both sexes of the punk-rock music and cultural movement to express sex, violence, and general nonconformity. On the polar opposite hand, however, feminists rebelled by not wearing lipstick. Doing an about-face from the previous wave of feminism, s feminists protested not with but against lipstick, condemning the commercialized beauty business as degrading to women. To some extent, this trend cost the cosmetics industry business, as potential lipstick customers opted for alternative measures, like staining their lips with raspberry juice.
Looking at the s lipstick world from a regulatory perspective a similar number of contrary forces came into play.